I have something to say to the people of Meereen - Daenerys Targaryen in Breaker of Chains
MY ULTIMATE CREATION
For hands of gold are always cold unless you’re holding a cup of hot espresso.
- Emperor/Empress, Kaiser/Kaiserin, Tsar/Tsaritsa: rules over everyone
- High King/High Queen, Maharajah, Pharaoh: rules over other kings
- King/Queen, Sultan/Sultana, Shah/Shahbanu, Raja/Rani, Rex: rules over everything (Europe) or leader of a large area or province (ancient Egypt, Persia, India)
- Crown Prince/Crown Princess, Emir/Emira, Dauphin: also called the heir apparent, next in line for the throne
- Prince/Princess: other children of the imperial or royal family
- Archduke/Archduchess: ruler of an archduchy
- Duke/Duchess: ruler of a duchy; highest rank under the royal family; While some duchies have their own lineage, members of the royal/imperial family can also be dukes (ex. Queen Elizabeth II is the Duke of Normandy)
MARQUESSATE, MARGRAVIATE, OR MARCH
- Marquess, Margrave, Marquis/Marchioness: the ruler of a marquessate, margraviate, or march
- Count, Earl/Countess: ruler of a county; known as an earl in England, but their wives are still countesses
- Viscount/viscountess: ruler of a viscounty; rank below counts/earls
- Baron/baroness: ruler of a barony
- Baronet: British title ranking below baron and above knight
- Seigneur/Knight of the Manor: rules a small local fief
- Knight: basic rank; used to denote someone who owned land and fought on behalf of their overlord
- Baron/baroness (Scotland only): ranks below a knight and above a laird; hereditary position
- Laird (Scotland only): ranks below a Scottish baron and above an esquire; landowner’s title
- Esquire: indicates someone who attends or is apprenticed to a knight
- Gentleman: the lowest rank of gentry; owns a small manor or plot of land
WHY DO PEOPLE CALL IT FUCK, MARRY, KILL WHEN THEY COULD CALL IT BED, WED, BEHEAD
Or, as King Henry VIII likes to call it, a productive evening.
So you know what I don’t get? Why people repeat words. (x)
Grammar time: it’s called “contrastive reduplication,” and it’s a form of intensification that is relatively common. Finnish does a very similar thing, and others use near-reduplication (rhyme-based) to intensify, like Hungarian (pici ‘tiny’, ici-pici ‘very tiny’).
Even the typologically-distant group of Bantu languages utilize reduplication in a strikingly similar fashion with nouns: Kinande oku-gulu ‘leg’, oku-gulu-gulu ‘a REAL leg’ (Downing 2001, includes more with verbal reduplication as well).
I suppose the difficult aspect of English reduplication is not through this particular type, but the fact that it utilizes many other types of reduplication: baby talk (choo-choo, no-no), rhyming (teeny-weeny, super-duper), and the ever-famous “shm” reduplication: fancy-schmancy (a way of denying the claim that something is fancy).
screams my professor was trying to find an example of reduplication so the next class he came back and said “I FOUND REDUPLICATION IN ENGLISH” and then he said “Milk milk” and everyone was just “what?” and he said “you know when you go to a coffee shop and they ask if you want soy milk and you say ‘no i want milk milk’” and everyone just had this collective sigh of understanding.
Another name for this particular construction is contrastive focus reduplication, and there’s a famous linguistics paper about it which is commonly known as the Salad Salad Paper. You know, because if you want to make it clear that you’re not talking about pasta salad or potato salad, you might call it “salad salad”. The repetition indicates that you’re intending the most prototypical meaning of the word, like green salad or cow’s milk, even though other things can be considered types of salad or milk.
Can I make love to this post?… Is that a thing that’s possible?
i just had a linguistgasm.